Use reference points, latitude and longitude, direction, size,
shape, and scale to locate positions on various representations
of the earth’s surface.
on a map physical features such as continents, oceans, mountain
ranges, and landforms, and human features such as cities, states,
and national borders.
Use a variety of geographic representations, such as political,
physical, and topographic maps, to gather and compare information
about a place.
Give examples of causes and consequences of current global issues
such as world population.
India is the world’s
seventh largest country in size. It is approximately one-third the
size of the United States of America. India is located on the world’s
largest continent, Asia. India is often called a sub continent, meaning
that it is part of Asia, yet it is a large land mass with differences
in physical features, climatic conditions, natural vegetation, human
habitations, religions, languages, economic, and social activities
which are characteristics of continents.
Location: India extends from 8 to 38 degrees north
latitude and from 69 to 97 degrees east longitude. The tropic of Cancer
divides the country approximately in half.
India is a peninsula with the Bay of Bengal on the east, Indian Ocean
on the south, and Arabian Sea on the west. The Himalayas form the
northern boundary. China, Nepal, and Bhutan are to the north of India.
Bangladesh, and Myanmar are to the east of India. Pakistan and Afghanistan
are to the Northwest. Sri Lanka is south of India. The Bay of Bengal
is the largest bay in the world by area. Hudson Bay in Canada has
a longer shoreline.
See Map: World
Location of India
Have your students:
- Color India Red
- Color the United States of America Green. Be careful. The USA does
not occupy all of North America.
-Label the equator and write 0 degrees on the Equator
- Label the Tropic of Cancer and write 23 degrees North Latitude on
the Tropic of Cancer
- Label the Arabian Sea
- Label the Bay of Bengal
- Label the Indian Ocean
See Map: India
and Neighboring Countries
India can be divided
into six natural regions:
II. Indo-Gangetic Plain
III. Central Plateau
IV. Deccan Plateau
V. East Coast
VI. West Coast
The Himalayas are the
highest mountains in the world. Himalayas means the “abode of
snow.” The Himalayas are located in the northernmost region
of the South Asian Subcontinent. Mount Everest is the highest peak
in the world, and is part of the Himalayas in Nepal. K2 is the highest
peak in the Himalayas within India. The Himalayas have acted as a
natural barrier against enemies. The Himalayas prevent cold wind of
Central Asia from entering India and stop Southwest monsoon winds
helping drop rain and making India fertile. The Perennial, or long
lasting rivers of North India, find their source in the Himalayas.
Tourists are attracted to the natural beauty of the area. Valuable
timber grows in the forests of the Himalayas.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain
lies at the foothills of the Himalayas. The Indus and Ganges Rivers
make the Indo-Gangetic Plain one of the most fertile basins of the
world. Food, grains, and sugar cane are grown here. It is believed
that the ancient civilizations of India were founded near river areas.
Today these regions remain densely populated. The Ganges (also called
the Ganga) is the longest river in India.
The Central Plateau
(Malwa Plateau) divides North India and South India. The plateau is
made of hard crystalline rocks. Coal, iron ore, and manganesium are
the main minerals found here.
The Deccan Plateau:
The Deccan Plateau is
triangular shaped. The northern part slopes westwards and rivers in
that region flow to the Arabian Sea, while the southern part slopes
eastward and rivers in that region flow to the Bay of Bengal. The
plateau is bounded on the east and west by mountain ranges know as
the Eastern and Western Ghats. The coastal strip between the Western
Ghats and the Arabian Sea is narrow, while that between the Eastern
Ghats and the Bay of Bengal is broad. The rivers on the west coast
are short and swift and do not end in deltas. On the east coast, a
number of rivers form deltas. There are more ports and natural harbors
in the west than in the east. The northwestern part of the plateau
has lava soil well suited for cotton cultivation.
The East Coast lies
between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The main rivers and
deltas of the south are located in this region.
This regions lies between
the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. This is a narrow long plain.
There are many lagoons along the coast, useful for island transport.
are a number of large rivers in India. Almost all the rivers in North
India have their source in the high snow-clad Himalayas. The rivers
of North India never dry up. The Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra River
systems are the major rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. The rivers
in the north are long and deep. The smooth plains these rivers cross
make them good for navigation and irrigation because they do not have
waterfalls. The rivers in South India are rain-fed and dry up in the
hot and dry season. The peninsular rivers of the south have their
source in the Western Ghats and flow across hills making a number
of waterfalls, which are not navigable, but provide Hydro-electricity.
The Narmada, Tapti, Periyar, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Cauvery
are other major rivers of India.
See Map: India-
your students label the following:
- The Himalayas
- The Indo-Gangetic Plain
- The Central Plateau (Malwa Plateau)
- The Deccan Plateau
- Eastern Ghats
- Western Ghats
- Mount Everest
- Arabian Sea
- Bay of Bengal
- Indian Ocean
See Map: India-
your students color the following rivers blue and label them:
- Ganges (Ganga)
Have students color
the area south of Nepal showing a population density of 401-600
persons per square km yellow. This area is part of the Indo-Gangetic
Have your students identify the Latitude and Longitude of the
following Cities in India:
Mumbai, New Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai, Madurai
Besides mainland India, there are two
groups of islands which belong to India. The Lakshadweep islands
are in the Arabian Sea, west of the Kerala coast. The thirty-six
islands were formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy and
Amindivi islands. The Lakshadweep Islands are the smallest
union territory in area and population. When the tiny sea
creatures surrounding the Lashadweep Islands die, their shells,
made of calcium carbonate turn into white limestone and form
the white sandy beaches. The Union Territory of Andaman and
Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal consists of hundreds
of islands. They form a lush green archipelago. The bay islands
are also called Kala Pani because the depth of the sea gives
the water surrounding the islands a blackish color. Indira
Point, in the Nicobar Islands, is the southern-most point
- In which hemisphere is
India located? Northern or Southern? Eastern or Western?
- Name the continent on which India is located.
- Name the physical boundaries of India.
- Name neighboring countries of India.
- What are advantages of the Himalayas?
- Name the highest peak in the Himalayas.
- Name two major rivers in India.
- Rank India in world land area.
- Name the main tributary of Ganges.
- Into which body of water does the Indus River flow?
- Compare and contrast the rivers of North India and South India.
India is a union of twenty-seven
States and seven union territories. The national capital is
New Delhi. Each state and territory has its own capital.
Have students label
as many states and territories and their capitals as you can.
- Name the capital of India.
- How many states comprise India?
- How many union territories are part of India?
- Name the capital Tamil Nadu.
- Name the capital of Kerala.
- What is Pondicherry?
- Labels the islands in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal that
belong to India.
Tamilnadu is a state in the southeast part of India. Its boundaries
are Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh on the north, the Bay of Bengal
on the east, Kerala on the west and the Indian Ocean on the
south. Tamilnadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area
and seventh largest state in population. Most of Tamilnadu is
a plain. The Western Ghats Mountains are in the west. The Eastern
Ghats Mountains meet the Western Ghats Mountains at Nilgiri
Hills. The southernmost tip of Tamilnadu is Kanniyakumari. The
Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Indian Ocean meet at Kanniyakumari.
Important rivers of Tamilnadu include Palar, Pennaiyar, Cauvery,
Vaigai, and Tamiraparani.
Chennai, the fourth largest
city in India, is the capital of Tamilnadu. It was also called
Madras from the British period until very recently. It is located
on the northeast coast of Tamil Nadu. It is an important international
trade center and has a large man-made harbor. The governor,
the chief minister, and all other government offices are in
Chennai. Chennai was developed significantly during the British
rule, because it was the center of the East India Trading Company;
it has remained a thriving city since Independence. The second
longest beach in the world called Marina Beach is in Chennai
on the Coromandel Coast.
Tamil Nadu is divided into
Tamilnadu is the ________________________
largest state in India.
The Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats meet at ____________________________.
The tallest peak in South India is ___________________________.
The coastline along Chennai is called _______________________.
Name the southernmost tip of Tamilnadu.
Name the capital of Tamilnadu.
The World’s population
is about six billion people. India’s population is about
one billion people making it the second largest country by population
after China. The USA has about three hundred million people,
about one third the population of India. India is the world’s
seventh largest country by area. India is about one third the
area of The USA.
Demonstrate the comparative
population density of India and the USA. Mark a circle with
yarn about twelve feet in diameter and have three students stand
in the marked area. Ask the students inside the circle to do
ten jumping jacks. This represents the population density of
the USA. Divide the circle into thirds and this time have nine
students stand in just one section of the circle. Have the nine
students in the circle do ten jumping jacks. This represents
the population density of India.
What are some advantages and disadvantages of greater population
||Strain on resources
|More efficient public transportation
||Spread of disease
To understand large numbers
when talking about population, make a chart to determine your
age in various time measurements and compare your age to the
population of the world, India, and some cities in Tamilnadu
Ask your students
the following questions:
How many years old would
you have to be to equal the world’s population if each
second of life counted for one person? About 200 years
How old would you have to
be to equal the population of India if each second of life counted
for one person? About 35 years
How old would you have to
be to equal the population of the USA if each second of life
counted as one person? About ten years
How old would you have to
be to equal the population of Chennai if each second of life
counted as one person? Six weeks
How old would you have to
be to equal the population of Madurai if each second of life
counted as one person? Two weeks